A.D.D.I.E Model

A.D.D.I.E Model

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Term2.png A.D.D.I.E Model
It is a systematic process generally used by instructional designers to develop and implement training activities and to determine the Who, What, Where, When, Why and How of training and/or instruction. In sum, it is some sort of architectural blueprint or guide of how to develop training from the ground up, ensuring that essential components have been addressed. The acronym stands for: Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. Each term refers to a specific phase in the instructional design process. All phases are interrelated. Taking evaluation as an example: even if it appears as the last function in the model, it takes place throughout the design process. The A.D.D.I.E. model can be used for both face-to-face and on-line instruction, with slight adjustments for technology-enhanced learning settings.


See also: Bloom's Taxonomy, Instructional Design, Kirkpatrick's Model, Learning Objectives.


Contents

The A.D.D.I.E Phases: a quick overview

Analysis: It is an important pre-design phase. It determines if there is in fact need for training, what knowledge needs to be acquired and what behaviours learners should demonstrate. The analysis is an elaborated process which provides essential information and elements that will guarantee positive results for your training intervention. This part of the process reflects the collection of data. The major outcome of the analysis is the ability to determine what learners will be able to do after the training; or in other words what the difference in performance will be.

Design: The design phase is where core instructional tasks are planned to cover learning objectives, assessment activities, content organization and deployment, and media. The main outcome reflects how the information gathered in the analysis phase was interpreted to construct a structured and meaningful learning architecture. The learning architecture demonstrates how learners will be guided to make sense of key information and construct knowledge.

Development: In this phase, all that was done in analysis and design will come in hand. The data collected, learning objectives, and assessments established are translated into learning events, tasks, or activities. Decisions to be made related to selection (and amount) of materials, type of activities and media are all oriented to one goal: lead learners to achieve learning objectives and be capable to bridge the performance gaps identified.

Implementation: This is the actual delivery of what was designed and developed. If the process and outcomes of the previous phases where completed, the training is ready for launching. An important aspect in this phase is monitoring so, if needed, changes and adaptations can be made to avoid compromising desired results.

Evaluation: Evaluation methods need to be in place in order to measure both the instruction and also participants’ performance in the training event. Measurement should occur according to what the training plan anticipated. The Kirkpatrik model is the one most commonly used to evaluate training (Level 1, Reaction; Level 2, Learning; Level 3, Behavior; Level 4, Results). In general training interventions tend to be evaluated at levels 1 and 2.

Why is it important?

  • It provides a strategic planning for training and/or instructional activities.
  • It provides a blueprint to develop training for achieving specified results.
  • It provides the fundamentals of instructional design, which tend to be overshadowed particularly in relation to conserving resources.

Why do you need to use it?

  • Using the ADDIE model facilitates monitoring of results achieved with training activities as it provides from the very beginning an objective path to measure achievements
  • If you are working with training development and implementation, it is relevant to work with the training industry’s most known and most used framework for instructional design.[1]


Toolkit.png Designing Training: the A.D.D.I.E. checklist

Analysis

  • Who are the learners? What are their characteristics (e.g. profile, existing knowledge), learning styles or learning behaviours?
  • What are the target audience’s performance gaps? Or what is the knowledge problem?
  • Determine whether the performance gap is indeed a problem that could be solved with a training intervention;
  • Gather data to be able to determine the objectives and the contents of the training. Both are to be perfectly aligned with what learners need to know to bridge the performance gap;
  • Elaborate overall goals and develop meaningful, measurable, and observable learning objectives. Use the Bloom's Taxonomy to classify the learning objectives and derive specific learning objectives (for modules and/or sections of the training programme);
  • Determine measurement methods assessment items/activities;
  • Consider the resources available and also the training project’s constraints;
  • Determine the delivery options;
  • Draft a budget and a time line.

Design

  • Describe the elements that are going to be part of the learning architecture (text, animation, graphics, video, multimedia elements, resources, etc.);
  • Design a storyboard which indicates how contents are presented, including identifying sections/units’ specific learning objectives. The content should be arranged in a logical sequence, according to the learning objectives;
  • Elaborate an assessment plan to demonstrate how learners will be tested;
  • Design the assessment items (criterion-referenced tests);
  • Draft a syllabus or course manual/workbook;
  • Identify facilitators’ responsibilities and tasks;
  • Identify prerequisites, inclusive technical (if any).

Development

  • Draft a lesson plan based on the following steps:

Gain attention> Direction> Recall> Content> Application> Evaluation> Closure;

  • Assemble content and/or draft content to compose the learning materials. Keep in mind the data gathered in the Analysis and Design phases to orient your decisions and avoid the selection of inappropriate materials;
  • Monitor carefully your decisions related to content organization and make sure you have pay attention to cognitive load, resisting temptations to add more than what is actually needed;
  • Orient your choices related to content making a clear distinction between dispensing of information and performance enhancement. Your end goal should be the latter not the former: what’s needed to attain learning objectives? What’s needed to perform tasks, activities, and criterion-referenced tests?
  • Prepare a list of resources for each learning objectives, making specific references to different materials to make sure you have all covered;
  • Prepare on-line content (if applicable);
  • Decide about the media and other equipments. Consider and select methods appropriate to the learning and feasible within the available budget;
  • Utilize medium that is close to real work environment as it will enhance knowledge transfer and retention;
  • Conduct a pilot test, whenever possible.

Implementation

  • Put the plan into action;
  • Deliver the training to participants and monitor its implementation;
  • Monitor learners’ reaction to content, materials, activities, facilitators, etc.
  • Collect feedback (survey, email, or other media) to validate content accuracy and completeness, teaching methods, and communication approach, among others (Level 1 Evaluation– Reaction) preferably while the training takes place.

Evaluation

  • Review constantly all A.D.D.I.E. elements;
  • Adjust instructional strategies according to students' interaction with the content, the instructor, and the peers;
  • Make sure you evaluate reaction to the training (Level 1 Evaluation) and learners’ ability to attain the learning objectives (Level 2 evaluation - Learning);
  • Review and analyze feedback received in Level 1 evaluation and analyze results achieved on learning (Level 2 Evaluation);
  • Review contents, materials, activities, as needed, based on the analysis of Level 1 and Level 2 evaluation;
  • In case you planned for Level 3 and Level 4 Evaluation (behaviour), observe performance, gather information from participants, access records such as performance data, and define measurable changes;
  • Revise the training activity based on the feedback obtained in the evaluation phase. [2]

Job Aid

Pdf.png Designing Training: the ADDIE Checklist.pdf‎


Link icon.png Web Resources
Find below additional information and resources.
Link Content
The A.D.D.I.E Model: an overview (video,3 minutes) A short description of what the ADDIE process is for instructional design.
A.D.D.I.E Training and Free Taxonomy (slideshow, 9 minutes) This slideshow presents a waterfall view of the Addie model and in particular it contains a checklist table (slide n*5) which allows you to match each step to a list of tasks and outputs.
Developing Training (slideshow, 5 minutes) A 5 minutes slideshow by Pete Blair analysing carefully each of the ADDIE phases. The last slide allows you to click on specific areas to get more information and technical training tips.
Getting more from e-learning (Video, 30 minutes) This is an excerpt from the presentation of Bryan Hopkins about concepts and guidelines for adult learning and e-learning held at the UNITAR Headquarters in Geneva, 6 April 2011.
Getting more from e-Learning (Slideshow, right click and open in New Tab) The presentation of Bryan Hopkins about concepts and guidelines for adult learning and e-Learning held at the UNITAR Headquarters in Geneva, 6 April 2011. (To open the file, right click and select Open in a New Tab.)
The ADDIE Model: A Visual Representation

(Infographic)

A graphical representation of the A.D.D.I.E. Model. The author focused on the most important aspects of each phase.

References

  1. Rives Hassell-Corbiell, Developing Training Courses, Learning Edge Publishing, 2001,George M. Piskurich, Peter Beckschi, and Brandon Hall, The ASTD Handbook of Training Design and Delivery, McGraw-Hill, 2000., http://www.learning-theories.com/addie-model.html (25 July 2011), http://www.instructionaldesign.org/models/addie.html (25 July 2011), http://fp.okstate.edu/honl/OSU%20Online/designer.htm (25 July 2011)
  2. Infoline digital series, E-learning- Instructional design for web-based training, ASTD Press, 2002, pp. 1-12.,Chuck Hodell, ISD: From the Ground Up- A No-Nonsense approach to Instructional Design, ASTD Press, 2011, pp. 21-30.